DELICIOUSNESS

LIKING

ABOUT PETER KLOSSE | TEXT: MAAIKE DE REUVER | DESIGN: ARJEN MOES

Professor Peter Klosse’s theory of flavor describes how a dish can reach the pinnacle of flavor. For this two things are required: deliciousness, which is about the products themselves and the combination of six factors for culinary success, and liking, which is about the personal preferences of people tasting the dish.

Peter Klosse’s flavor theory

BALANCE

AROMA

INGREDIENTS

Deliciousness

Deliciousness is the composition of flavor. It is a beautiful, harmonious combination of several factors that each influence the flavor of a product. Deliciousness doesn’t happen by accident. It is art, and the ultimate balance of these six factors for culinary success.

NAME

UMAMI

sweet
sour
bitter
salt

MOUTHFEEL

PRESENTATION

SITUATION

PERSONAL PREFERENCE

CULTURE

WEATHER

ENVIRONMENT

MOMENT OF THE DAY

EXPERIENCE

MOOD

CONVENIENCE / SPEED

LIFESTYLE

Liking

Liking is about a person’s personal preferences. A dish could be objectively perfect according to the aforementioned six factors of culinary success, but if it isn't in line with the personal factors, people won't like it. So for the ultimate flavor experience the products should match the situation and personal likings. 

Want to know more?

DELICIOUSNESS

LIKING

ABOUT PETER KLOSSE | TEXT: MAAIKE DE REUVER | DESIGN: ARJEN MOES

Peter Klosse’s flavor theory

Professor Peter Klosse’s theory of flavor describes how a dish can reach the pinnacle of flavor. For this two things are required: deliciousness, which is about the products themselves and the combination of six factors for culinary success, and liking, which is about the personal preferences of people tasting the dish.

Ingredients

The presence of umami in a dish enhances the flavor as a whole. Umami is the flavor of a certain amino acid: glutamate. It enhances many flavors and raises the richness of the dish. Umami is naturally found in ripe tomatoes, mushrooms, peas, aged cow cheese, and seaweed.

Deliciousness is the composition of flavor. It is a beautiful, harmonious combination of several factors that each influence the flavor of a product. Deliciousness doesn’t happen by accident. It is art, and the ultimate balance of these six factors for culinary success.

Deliciousness

A well balanced dish has elements of the flavors salt, sweet, sour and bitter. Too much of any one flavor is bad, but not enough is equally negative. This doesn’t imply that all four elements are equally needed to be present in a dish. A hearty dish is better with a touch of sweet, sour and bitter. Likewise a sweet dish is better with a touch of salt, sour and bitter.

Balance

The name ofThe name of a dish raises expectations. It is very important that these expectations are met. So promises made by the name should at least be delivered. Watch out with health claims! Studies have shown issues like ‘healthy’ or ‘vegetarian’ may have adverse effects.

Name

Umami

Presentation

Flavor begins with the right ingredients. The use of poor quality ingredients will never result in a high quality dish. Furthermore, a product’s ripeness greatly affects both its flavor and texture, and as a direct result those of your dish.

The way in which you present a dish influences the flavor. Use different colors, shapes, and dimensions on the plate, as well as for the plate itself. Music which is played in the room, light and darkness and the room itself are all aspects of the meal experience as well.  

Mouthfeel

A perfectly composed dish has an interesting mouthfeel. The ultimate dish has elements of coating (fatty/sweet), contracting (sour, salt, cold), and dry (crispy, bitter, hard).

Aroma

Your sense of smell is vitally important for your perception of flavor. The smells of coffee, freshly baked bread, and apple pie are all seen as positive. Whereas the smell of spoiled food is perceived negatively. Fun fact: women are more sensitive in smelling than men.

Weather

Liking

Liking is about a person’s personal preferences. A dish could be objectively perfect according to the aforementioned six factors of culinary success, but if it isn't in line with the personal factors, people won't like it. So for the ultimate flavor experience the products should match the situation and personal likings. 

A harmonious, carefully composed dish is a wonderful thing, but it isn’t magic. A truly delicious, memorable dish needs to surprise, excite, and open your eyes to new possibilities. That magic spark is generated by sacrificing a tiny bit of harmony to create something unexpected, something chaotic. In that chaos, the ultimate flavor is realized.

Magic

Your lifestyle is your way of making conscious decisions about what you eat. When you’re on a diet you will only let yourself eat certain things. If you’re a serious athlete, your nutritional needs will be vastly different from the average person.

Lifestyle

One person prefers sweet, another salty. One craves chocolate, while another despises the stuff. Your personal preferences determine which dishes you love, and which you hate. Some preferences can be hardwired by our DNA, for example fresh corriander. Some people like bitter, other people are very sensitive to bitterness. The preference for some flavors is acquired.

Personal preference

Culture

The culture in which you were raised plays a large part in determining your preferences. In India, for instance, people generally like spicy food, whereas in the Netherlands the dishes tend to be milder. In China it is acceptable to eat dog meat, Peruvians eat guinea pigs, and in Thailand a glass of snake’s blood is perfectly normal.

Weather and the change of seasons also play a large part in deciding what you like. Is it snowing outside? Bring on the soups, stews, and hot chocolate.  Is the sun splitting the stones? We all scream for ice cream, fruits and fresh salads.

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Environment

Your social environment determines which dishes are considered ‘normal’ to eat, and therefore what dishes you like. In a group you eat what the majority decides, you comply to the social behavior of the group. On a holiday you eat different things than at home, simply because the environment is different. 

Moment of the day

Most people have different preferences for breakfast than for dinner. In the evenings you generally choose other dishes than in the morning, and in the weekends you have a different eating pattern than during the week. 

Experience

During your life your brain develops in multiple ways, including your different flavor preferences. If you taste a certain product more consciously, then your brain is better at recognizing and evaluating the product when you eat it again. Your personal experience with the product makes you able to compare flavors, and say something about the quality. Development of liking creates new preferences.

Your mood decides what you’re craving. Suffering from heartbreak? Have some chocolate. Celebrating? Beer!  Feeling tired and lethargic? Takeout seems good. Dinner guests? Time to show them what you can do in the kitchen.

Mood

Situation

Your personal situation is a major factor in determining your preferences. If you just got done working out a big heaping bowl of pasta seems like just the thing, but if you’re just chilling in the sun a light salad sounds a lot better.

Convenience
/ speed

Your schedule sets the amount of time you have to spend on food. If you have to hurry you’ll only make something that is quick and easy. And when you spend a lot of time on the road, then to-go meals are much more convenient than extensive home cooking.

Overview magazines

Food Inspiration Magazine is the online magazine for foodservice professionals in search of inspiration and innovation. With the magazine we collect, enrich and spread inspiration. The free subscription magazine is published eight times per year and is an abundant source of inspiration for food and hospitality professionals. Our readers can be found in the U.S., Northern Europe, Latin America and Asia.
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